Articles on p-value

A/B Testing Statistics – A Concise Guide for Non-Statisticians

AB Testing Statistics

Navigating the maze of A/B testing statistics can be challenging. This is especially true for those new to statistics and probability. One reason is the obscure terminology popping up in every other sentence. Another is that the writings can be vague, conflicting, incomplete, or simply wrong, depending on the source. Articles sprinkled with advanced math, […] Read more…

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P-values and Confidence Intervals Explained

P-values and confidence intervals explained

Hundreds if not thousands of books have been written about both p-values and confidence intervals (CIs) – two of the most widely used statistics in online controlled experiments. Yet, these concepts remain elusive to many otherwise well-trained researchers, including A/B testing practitioners. Misconceptions and misinterpretations abound despite great efforts from statistics educators and experimentation evangelists. […] Read more…

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Confidence Intervals & P-values for Percent Change / Relative Difference

In many controlled experiments, including online controlled experiments (a.k.a. A/B tests) the result of interest and hence the inference made is about the relative difference between the control and treatment group. In A/B testing as part of conversion rate optimization and in marketing experiments in general we use the term “percent lift” (“percentage lift”) while in […] Read more…

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The Google Optimize Statistical Engine and Approach

Frequentist vs Bayesian A/B testing - Google Optimize

Updated Sep 17, 2018: Minor spelling and language corrections, updates related to role of randomization and external validity / generalizability. Google Optimize is the latest attempt from Google to deliver an A/B testing product. Previously we had “Google Website Optimizer”, then we had “Content Experiments” within Google Analytics, and now we have the latest iteration: […] Read more…

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Statistical Significance in A/B Testing – a Complete Guide

Statistical Significance P Value

The concept of statistical significance is central to planning, executing and evaluating A/B (and multivariate) tests, but at the same time it is the most misunderstood and misused statistical tool in internet marketing, conversion optimization, landing page optimization, and user testing. This article attempts to lay it out in as plain English as possible: covering […] Read more…

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